Turkish Classical Music

According to historical data, Turkish Music is based on Middle Asia Turkish Music Culture.This development was revealed by Turkish scientists and music theoreticians such as Farabî (870-950), İbni Sîna(980-1037) and Safiüddîn Abd'ül Mü'min Urmevi (1224-1294) and in the following periods, scientist and composers brought about new developments in the theoretical structure, form, melody and rhyhme.

Important figures in the history of Turkish Music; Abdülkadir Meragi (the beginning of classical period), Itri (Classical period), İsmail Dede Efendi (Neoclassical period), Hacı Arif Bey (Romantic period), Rauf Yekta Bey - Hüseyin Sadeddin Arel - Dr. Subhi Ezgi (The onset of modern period).


is a term expressing various characteristics of a musical piece such as key signature (Turkish "donanım"), dominant tone (Turkish "güçlü"), leading tone (Turkish "yeden") and route (Turkish "seyir"). Melody formed by this scale expresses or inspires a mood depending on characteristics of the makam.

Key signature (Turkish "donanım"); expresses the change signs such as sharp, flat, comma flat, comma sharp put on notes. Final tone (Turkish "karar"); is finish tone of a musical piece, it is usuallly the first tone in scale. Dominant tone (Turkish "güçlü");is the common tone of pentachords, tetrachords forming the makam. Route (Turkish "seyir"); is the use of notes in the scale as rising, falling or rising falling. Leading tone (Turkish "yeden"); is the tone used before final tone. Tonic (Turkish "asma karar-yarım karar"); is the tone where musical work has a pseudo-final, it appears to end there, but continues until final tone.

Pentachords, Tetrachord; In Sufi Music makams are formed by the addition of pentachords-tetrachord to each other. Usually first four tones of pentachords forms tetrachord and first three tones form çeşni.

Commonly used Pentachords, Tetrachord;
Çargah dörtlüsü Çargah beşlisi
Buselik dörtlüsü ,Buselik beşlisi
Uşşak dörtlüsü, ,Hüseyni beşlisi
Kürdi dortlusu ,Kürdi beşlisi,
Rast dörtlüsü Rast beşlisi,

And other Pentachords, Tetrachord;
Hicaz beşlisi, Saba dörtlüsü, Segah beşlisi,
Müstear beşlisi, Hüzzam beşlisi, Nikriz beşlisi,
Pençgah beşlisi, Ferahnak beşlisi, Nişabur beşlisi,

Usül (pattern); is the term expressing the rhytmical structure of the composition i.e. which darbs are strong and which are weak or how many darb it is composed of.